The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease often come on slowly. It might start when someone has trouble recalling things that just happened or putting thoughts into words. But over time, the problems get worse. People in the later stages of the disease usually can’t live alone or care for themselves.
There are three main phases of Alzheimer’s: mild, moderate, and severe. Each stage has its own set of symptoms.
The first stage usually lasts from 2 to 4 years. The symptoms include:
- Having less energy and drive to do things
- Less interest in work and social activities and spending more time just sitting, watching TV, or sleeping
- Loss of recent memories, like forgetting conversations and events that just happened
- Language problems, like trouble putting their thoughts into words or understanding others
- Mild coordination problems, such as trouble writing or using familiar objects.
- A hard time with everyday tasks, such as following a recipe or balancing a checkbook
- Mood swings that involve depression or a lack of interest
- Trouble with driving, like getting lost on familiar routes
When a person has one or a few of these issues, it doesn’t necessarily mean he has Alzheimer’s. There are other medical conditions that can cause the same problems, such as:
- Conditions that affect metabolism, such as a thyroid problem
- Drug abuse
- Taking medications that don’t work well together
- Parkinson’s disease
A doctor can check on these symptoms and do tests to know if a person has Alzheimer’s or something else.
This is when memory loss gets worse and starts to cause problems in daily life. This stage can last from 2 to 10 years.
Someone with moderate Alzheimer’s may start to forget details about his life, like where he went to high school or when he got married. He may not recognize or remember family members and friends. He might also forget where he leaves things and can’t retrace his steps to find them.
Other symptoms at this stage can include:
- Rambling speech
- Trouble coming up with the right words and using the wrong ones
- A hard time planning or solving problems
- Confusion about time or place. He may get lost in places he’s been before. Once he’s there, he may not know how or why he got to that place.
- Not dressing for the weather
- Getting angry or upset easily, sometimes lashing out at family or caregivers
- Trouble sleeping
- Delusions, such as thinking a caregiver is trying to hurt him
Some people with moderate Alzheimer’s also become more aware that they’re losing control of their lives, which can make them even more frustrated or depressed.